Jews had moved from Germany up to Russia and the surrounding areas in their wanderings after 70 AD when Jerusalem fell to the Roman soldiers. Russia had confined them to live in one area called the "Pale of Russia". You had to be a special person to get documents that allowed you into Russia proper for any business. Pograms were going on all the time. Look at the movie "Fiddler on the Roof" for one example. Very often they were worse than what was portrayed in that movie. Read "Golda" by Peggy Mann and see what happened to Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel. By 1896, Theodor Herzl, a Jewish reporter in Austria-Hungary, wrote that because of the growing antisemitism that he was witnessing, he proposed an establishment of a Jewish State. He gave birth to Zionism.