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Thursday, January 28, 2010

Leading Hospital Researcher in DNA: Rambam in Haifa

There are more than 6.8 billion people on earth, and Jews make up less than 1% of them. This is as of November 2009. All together we have about 13 million Jews in the whole world. Despite that, we're making our mark in dna research.

When I moved to Israel in 1980, I had to take a 10 month retraining course in order to receive my teaching certificate needed to teach English as a Foreign/Second Language. Just before my big three hour final, I fell on my right elbow, broke it and the connecting bone and was taken in a rickety car to Rambam. There three doctors operated for three hours and put my elbow back together again. I learned the Hebrew phrase, Co-ev lee (there is pain to me).

Imagine how thrilled I am to see that my favorite dna researcher, Doron Behar, author of so many dna papers, is from the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel, and he is leading research about humans that is so interesting. He is associated with Saharon Rosset of IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, and Tel Aviv University.

Humans or Homo Sapiens began in Africa early in the Stone Age. Studies have been done on the female dna (mitochondiral DNA) and an Eve was found to have lived about 200,000 years ago. We had separated into small populations in the early stone age period, called the Paleolithic period. This was about 10,000 BCE or 12,000 years ago. I feel that this may have been mostly family groupings. Who else are you going to trust in those days? We were in very small groups even before this time since Eve was pre-Paleolithic. However, Adam lived about 60 thousand years ago and this is when M haplogroup started and the mtdna haplogroup of N and T started.

Sometime between 90,000 and 150,000 years ago, a new study of mitochondrial (female) dna of the Khoi and San people in South Africa shows that they diverged from other people. All the small bands of people suffered from drought in East Africa, and the numbers may have fallen to only 2,000 people about 70,000 years ago. This is from a study through Stanford U. Then in the Stone Age they banded together again and their numbers increased. 70 thousand years ago it is thought that abstract thinking and the origins of language started. Finally about 60,000 years ago they started migrating out of Africa. Now they could argue about where to go.

25 thousand years ago the Neanderthals died out. the Ydna R2 started as well as the mtdna J and x haplogroups.

The Mesolithic Stone Age period is a middle time 12,000-9,000 years ago. R1a haplogroup started. The mtdna groups of V and T also started. This was a time that light skinned Europeans were being created. The later Stone Age period, Neolithic Period, introduced agriculture and was only 11/9,000 years ago. This gives you an idea of all that was happening to people before they even got to the Stone Age and started using tools, etc.

Paleontologist Meave Leakey commented that the extremes of climate reduced our numbers so that we were on the very edge of extinction.

Now we just have to worry that atomic weapons in the hands of beligerant dictators can do the same thing; wipe so many of us out. Iran has threatened Israel and this threat hangs over its population daily. After going through a recent holocaust from the WWII, Jews were just about completely wiped out by losing over 6 million. They don't want this to happen again.

The AMOVA phenomenon is something they have discovered that means that the environment makes the initial changes in DNA and then heredity transmits them. There is a Middle East type Amova and this cuts across haplogroup distinctions. So environment affects our children and their genes. This would include food and water as well as air, I suppose.

1/31/10: PS The website this information came from is in question. I need further investigation of this phenomenon. The governor of California has just ordered an investigation in a town that has a hazardous waste facility owned by chemical Waste Management Inc. because five out of twenty children (0.25) born in one year suffer from facial defects. One would think that the environment may be the cause. I suppose this would be an example of AMOVA if the five children have children and they inherit the facial birth defects. We can suffer from environmental events such as the Hiroshima bombing, but this is not necessarily an inherited factor.

2/2/10 There is also something called epigenetics started in the 1980's by Swedish Dr. Lars Bygren who discovered that what happens to males and females can affect their offspring and possibly their offspring genetically. He discovered that periods of gluttony caused the offspring and the next generation to have shorter life spans. The genes are affected by cellular material-the epigenome-that sits on top of the genome just outside it which tell genes to switch on or off. Environmental factors like diet, stress and prenatal nutrition can make imprints on genes that is passed from one generation to the next. It makes me wonder about Holocaust survivors of the camps who managed to have children. What has happened to their offspring?

Abraham and Sarah lived about 4,000 years ago. They seem to be very contemporary being we humans have been living for about 196,000 years trying to get to look and act just right. After looking around me, I think we're still a work in progress.

Reference: from 4/24/2008
Book: DNA & Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser
Time Magazine January 18, 2010 ( page 48-53

: What Haplogroup We Be?

Jewish Haplogroups: What Are They?
By Nadene Goldfoot
First, Jews make up less than 1% of the world population today. There are people who have the genes we carry that are not Jewish.

They could be any of the haplogroups found today, but there are some that are more prevalent than others.

Update: 6/2/14-a video on Jewish DNA to come back to and watch from 2011:

J1: (J M267) Abraham and Sarah came from Ur, which was in what is now Iraq. The majority of Ashkenazie Jewish men fall into the Y haplogroup of J. Aaron, Moses’s brother, was the first Cohen, and Cohens are an inherited position and responsibility. Cohens have been found to be J1 and J2. J2a2; J-M172; J-M92 (J2a4b1) are Jewish DNA haplogroups. One only has to have the 12 alleles tested to have the J-M267 tag. which is the Cohen line.  Remember, our history says that  Abraham gave birth to Ishmael through the Egyptian princess handmaiden,  Hagar belonging to Sarah, and to Isaac through Sarah, making the lines of Arabs and Jews.  
Update 10/7/16 J-M267 on ftdna testing on Arabs: 1 exact match out of 678 tested of United Arab Emirates; Syria Arab Republic-1 out of 341 tested; Saudi Arabia 1 out of 4619 tested, Morocco-2 out of 192 tested; Israel-3 out of 199 tested but 2 were Ashkenazi Jews.  

This haplogroup is found to have arisen 10,000 to 15,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, and Abraham was born only about 4,000 years ago. He is mentioned in Genesis, living in about the 2nd millennium BCE. His father was Terah and was unhappy with his life in Ur in about 2,000 BCE. and left Ur, which was part of the Sumerian civilization. Besides Jews, Arabs, Armenians and Kurds are found in this haplogroup. Interestingly, Kurds are still living in Iraq, even though Saddam Hussein gassed many of them. Kurds have the closest dna to most Jewish men.The highest frequencies are in Iran and Iraq. It was carried by traders into Europe, Central Asia, India, and Pakistan. Most likely traders could have been Jews, who became involved in such endeavors.

Update: 4/29/14:  There is a J1c3 which seems to be the oldest found.  It used to be called J1e,   In the website-, they said that 30% of Yemenite Jews have the haplogroup of J1c3 or P58, as it is also called. As I see it, J1c3 was the original or oldest, going back 9,000 to 10,000 years J1c3d is a subgroup of it.  The J1 SNP of L859 tells if you are an Arab Hashimite.

Information from a Hashimite friend:
The ancestor of J1c3 is J1c, and the you're right about it that J1c3d is the descendant of J1c3
It was known as J1e until February 2010  when a number of mutations were discovered in the J1 tree that made a change in nomenclature necessary.

Haplogroup J-P58 originally called J1e. 

Haplogroup J1c3, defined by the P58 marker is most frequent in Yemen-Saudi (65%) It is also very common among other Arabs such as those of the Levant, i.e. Palestinian (38.5%), Syria (30%), Lebanon (25%). In Jewish populations, J1c3 constitutes 30% of the Yemenite Jews, 20.0% of Ashkenazi results, and 12% of Sephardi results

Update 6/16/14:  There is a J1c3 that is an mtDNA haplogroup, and there is a J1c3 Ydna haplogroup that is also referred to as P58.  23&Me  uses this for mtDNA, and FTDNA uses it for YDNA.  This can be very confusing.  Also, when you transfer your tests, the companies do not list your haplogroups, only the company doing the original testing.  

But the chances are high that Abraham and father were J1c3, but Noah could have been J1c. J1c3d Arabs/israelites are the direct descendants of Abraham in that case.
There is a J2 which is associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic Period from Anatolia, and this is found in central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. Ashkenazi Jews have 15-23% of J2.  Sephardi Jews have 15-23% of J2.  Evidence from case studies is presented that allows the definition of a new subclade of Y Haplogroup J2b-M102.  The defining binary polymorphism of the new subclade is a deletion event in the Y-STR marker, DYS455.  The present study shows that the new subclade is located in the J2b phylogeny downstream from the previously defined subclade J2b-M241. The members of the subclade were asked about Ashkenazi and Cohanim backgrounds on their patrilineal lines and of the four who responded, all four are Ashkenazi Jews and Cohanim.  This suggests that future Y-chromosome studies involving Ashkenazi and Cohanim should type DYS455 to investigate further this possible link
J-M172;  J-M267 has been found in men with the surnames of Cohen.  
J2a4b is a German Jewish line, part of J-M67.  
J2a4 or -L26, has a Lisbon, Portugal person, so it must be Sephardic.  
Update: J2a4 is now found to be from Zadok, high priest-ancestor of Aaron.  
J1-P58 is found in both Ashkenazi and Sephardi to be from Aharon (Aaron) with J1-Z18271 as the Cohen factor with others coming from this.  (acadamia paper) J2 is older than J1.  

G 7% of Ashkenazies are in the G, and G2 haplogroup. and G-2a.  This may have originated along the eastern part of the Middle East or India or Pakistan 30,000 years ago and dispersed into central Asia, Europe and the Middle East. G with a P15 mutation is found mainly in the Caucasus, Balkans, Italy and the Middle East.
Update: 5/10/2012-Types of Jewish G may have come from Khazaria.  
Update: 10/27/15-Jewish G2c might have originated 770-1100 years ago, most likely in Italy.  (A.Z.resource through R. B. of G group) 
9/13/16 G-M377 is one of the Ashkenazi haplogroups.  

Q1b1: 5% of Ashkenazi Jewish men are found to be Q1b, of which is my father’s haplogroup (Q1b1a or Q-L245) and the latest is called Q-Y2200, updated to Q-BZ67.  Q originated in Central Asia 15,000 to 20,000 years ago and the men migrated through northern Eurasia into the Americas. Q3 became Native Americans coming from a mutation that happened 8,000 to 12,000 years ago. Q1b’s are from the Altai Mountains in Mongolia, Siberia and parts of Turkey. Khazaria may be the home of Q1b’s, and therefore these men could be part of the Ashina Royal Dynasty. Their common ancestor was a man 1,000 years ago. New Q SNP test results in: Q-L245 is Ashkenazi, Q-Y2780=ca 1400 CE; Q-&Ip1071=ca 700 CE, Q-&Ip1010-11 YP1008=800 CE, Q-&P1009=1400 CE ; 
4/21/10: P.S.Now we're not positive if Q1b comes from Khazaria though if I had to bet I'd bet that it is. It hasn't been accepted by the main body of scientists who decide such things. To me it's the most logical place, but we have no actual proof. We need more, perhaps several bodies with teeth that could be tested for the Ydna from Khazaria. Most likely the population of Khazaria was made up of a mixture of people from various haplogroups, but it's the Royal family that we're hoping to turn out to be Q1b's as the Royal family converted to Judaism but did not force their people to convert. 
Researcher: Prof. Alfred Krupa: " As for my Ashina of Khazaria certification,  it has been issued by the largest genetic company IGENEA of Zurich, after agreement from the worlds largest genetic company FTDNA of Houston. Bennett Greenspann has been advised about all elements of formal papers and my own research,and approved such conclusion".
Update: 5/10/2012 Q1b1 is losing out in being considered as coming from the Royal family of Khazaria.  DNA expert Rebekah Canada reports that they're thinking maybe G types and R1a1a types more likely candidates.
Double Update: 5/10/2012 from Rebekah Canada: 
Updated on SNPs 5/26/16  to Q-BZ67.  
Is Q-L245 found in modern Arab populations?  Yes
Is Q-L245 found in modern Anatolian populatons?  Yes
Is Q-L245 found in modern Iran and Iraq?  Yes
Is Q-L245 found from the modern locations of the Ancient city of Ur down to the tip of Saudi Arabia and Oman?  Yes
Does that cover the places where ancient Israel, Judah, and Sumaria were?  Yes.

Q, Q-L245 or Q1b1a, now Q-BZ67  is the haplogroup of my father's line.  This is very exciting news today because Abraham came from Ur, and this gives  me the theory that he may also have been of this group.  Whereas Moses and Aaron may have been of the J1 haplogroup, that doesn't necessarily mean Abraham had to as well.  Without a time machine and a test kit in it, we're left to theorize intelligently.  

 Update: 7/7/13: Sorry, I did a tree from the Torah's information and Abraham would have been the direct descendant of Jacob's 12 sons.  So Moses would have been directly from Abraham.  Moses was of the Tribe of Levi.  Moses was the 6th generation from Abraham directly or his 3rd great grandson.  

Update: 5/29/12; The latest news for our group is that our origins were around Pakistan and India this must include the Assyrian Empire.  Mesopotamia was a part of Assyria, and in that empire sits Ur, which is located today in northern Iraq.   This Semitic Akkadian Kingdom was from the 25th century BCE down to 608 BCE from the upper Tigris River in Northern Mesopotamia. 

Some Western Jews belong to Q-M378 as well. Q-M378's subbranch Q-

L245's subclades Q-Y2200 and Q-YP1035 are the only varieties of 

haplogroup Q that are found in Ashkenazi Jews. Citizen scientists found 

that some Sephardic Jews carry different subclades of Q-L245, including 

Q-BZ3900, Q-YP745, and Q-YP1237. hen we first started we were bewildered men of northern European descent most of us with a Jewish heritage who were members of Haplogroup Q. If we paid the extra money and had our SNPs tested we found that in addition to the M242 SNP that put us into Haplogroup Q we also had SNP P36.2 which put us into subgroup Q1* but this was pretty much meaningless for us.

Over time though, new branches have been discovered. Some of these clearly define Jewish branches on the Q tree. Others pose ongoing questions that must be answered with additional testing and research.

Branch Paths

This is what we know about Jewish Q branches so far. Note that when we specify a group within the Jewish Diaspora we are only reporting where the branch is most common today.


This branch is primarily found in the modern Ashkenazi Jewish population. For those with Ashkenazi Jewish oral traditions, our definitive SNP appears to Q-Y2232. Other Jewish Diaspora Q branches seem to come from elsewhere on the Q tree. They likely came into the Jewish population separately from Q-Y2232. Immediately above Q-Y2232 is Q-Y2200. It is unclear right now how and when those who are Q-Y2200 but not Q-Y2232 are related to their Ashkenazi Jewish cousins. 

Behar and others published a scientific paper January 2004 found 5.22% of Ashkenazi Jewish men to have the P36 marker (a SNP downstream from M242 and upstream from M378) whereas among the non-Jewish neighbors there was only 0.3% had this SNP. It now appears that many of us also have another SNP downstream from M378, the L245. As the results from additional testing become known we will share that information.

12/27/23:  We analyzed 47 fully sequenced Y-chromosomes and reconstructed the haplogroup 

Q3 phylogenetic tree idetail. Haplogroup Q3-L275, derived from the oldest known split within Eurasian/American  Hap- hllogroup Q, most likely occurred in West or Central Asia in the Upper Paleolithic period. During the Mesolithic and

 Neolithic epochs, Q3 remained a minor component of the West Asian Y-chromosome pool and gave rise to five branches 

(Q3a to Q3e), which spread across West, Central and parts of South Asia. Around 3-4 millennia years ago.  

Phylogeography of human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q3-L275 from an academic/ citizen science collaboration by Vladimir Guriuanov

4 millennia ago (Bronze Age), the Q3a branch underwent a rapidexpansion, splitting into seven branches, some of which entered Europe. One of these branches, Q3a1, was acquired by apopulation ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews and grew within this population during the 1st millennium AD, reaching up to 5%in present day Ashkenazi.

R, R1, R2, R1a, R1b haplogroups are believed to have originated in NW Asia between 30,000 and
35,000 years ago. R1 is very common in Europe and Western Eurasia. R2 is rare and found only in Indian, Iranian and central Asian populations. R1a is most common among eastern European Slavs and populations in India and central and western Asia. It was thought to be the Khazarian Jewish lineage. They most likely originated in the Eurasian steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas in the Kurgan people who lived there around 3000 BCE and known for the domestication of the horse.
Update: 5/10/2012: Subtypes of R1a1 may have come from Khazaria.
Update 6/25/15: R1a1, R1b, and R1a1a or R1a-CTS6 is the Levite haplogroup.  Read for more information. Jeff Wexler discovered this line of Ashkenazi Levites.  Analyses posted here. R1a1 is common among Ukrainians-thought to have originated there, Russians, and Serbs (Slavic speakers in Germany, as well as among Central Asian populations with admixture possible with Ukrainians, Poles or Russians.
 A later 2005 study by Nebel et al., found a similar level of 11.5% of male Ashkenazim belonging to R1a1a (M17+), the dominant Y-chromosome haplogroup in Central and Eastern Europeans.; R-M269; R1b1a2a; R-V88 are found among Jews.  R-L47-from R1a, Jewish 
Update: R-M17:  Levites carry this , not from ancestral Hebrew population, did not resemble other Y chromosomes from the Jewish population studied.  From Slavic source, 1,000 years ago, if not from Sorbs or Belarusians ancestors, could be from  Khazars-Turkish empire.

 R1b is the most common haplogroup in Europe and expanded throughout after the last ice age, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. It contains the Atlantic Modal Haplotype. R1b formed from a group that emigrated from Africa 50,000 years ago and eventually settled in Europe in the last 30,000 years.  It has high frequencies among the Welsh, Basques, Irish, English, Portuguese, French and Dutch.  It's occurrence among Ashkenazi Jews may be an indicator of admixture that happened at the time of Jewish residence in the Rhine Valley prior to migration to Eastern Europe.  Prevalent among the Marronite Christian community in Lebanon and represents establishment of European enclave in Lebanon by religious Crusaders in 11th -13th centuries.

 R-M269 (R1b...)  It's a Galicia- Ashkenazi haplogroup, and not that common.  This is found in low frequencies in Europe, Central Asia and Central Asia.  It is thought it moved from Europe into Asia.  It is found in Armenia, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Turkey and Ukraine.  In some cases, major downstream mutations such as M269 are used to identify R1b, especially in regional or out-of-date studies  Update: 4/30/15 
Update 5/15/15 The surname of Cohen has found an R-M269 haplogroup.  
R-M124.(R2a) developed 25,000 years ago in Central Asia, the 2nd wave of migration in India;  ..from Ashkenazi in Ukraine
R-M207: Y-haplogroup R-M207 is common throughout Europe, South Asia and Central Asia (Kayser 2003). It also occurs in the Caucasus and Siberia. Some minorities in Africa also carry subclades of R-M207 at high frequencies.

While some indigenous peoples of The Americas and Australasia also feature high levels of R-M207, it is unclear whether these are deep-rooted, or an effect of European colonisation during the early modern era.

It's been found in the Lithuania=Poland-Ukraine area in Jewish population.  R (R-M207)

Haplogroup R* Y-DNA (xR1,R2) was found in 24,000-year-old remains from Mal'ta in Siberia near Lake Baikal.[4] In 2013, R-M207 was found in one out of 132 males from the Kyrgyz people of East Kyrgyzstan.[8]

E, (E1b1b1) whose name was then changed to E-M35.  Another line on the same level was E-M35.1 which is now being called E-L117, and  E-M84 of Berber origins.   E1b1b1-m35 is now Z830 cluster B or E-Z830-B.  This is the haplogroup of Albert Einstein whose ancestor was Naphtali Hirsh Einstein b: 1733-d: 1799. 
E1b1b1c1a is now called M84.  About 4% of Jews are of M84.  E3b, mentioned by Harry Ostrer in Legacy,  
Update 6/27/17
 Originally from Africa 50,000 years ago it was thought, now more likely the Middle East, shares common ancestry with haplogroup D.  It has groups in Africa and the Middle East.  Some clades are also found in Europe among those living near the Mediterranean, believe to represent the ancient genetic influence from the Middle East to Europe.20% of Ashkenazi Jews are E1b1b.

Haplogroup E1b1b1 is a very Jewish line.  (from Albert Benhamou)  added 5/2/2012 Albert  Einstein  belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1b2* E-Z830, with a sample taken from a paternal descendants of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein.   Also,  According to a genetic study in December 2012, Ramesses III, second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty and considered to be the last great New Kingdom king to wield any substantial authority over Egypt, belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1a, mainly found in sub-saharan Africa.  He of course was not Jewish but Jews lived in Egypt for 400 years as slaves.  Added 2/15/13.  
E-M35.1 now called  (E-L117) is the 2nd most frequent  haplogroup found in Jewish families.  This is the same as  E1b1b1 that Einstein had. It's just been given a newer title.  18% to 20% of Ashkenazi Jews carry this and 8.6 % to 30% of Sephardi Jews carry it. It is the 2nd highest haplogroup found in Jewish men after J1.   "The E1b1b1 men claiming to be Levites may have existed in Israel before the Diaspora of 70 CE. 

 "E1b1b1 may have arisen instead of Africa,  in the Near East or the Middle East 20,000 years ago and then expanded into the Mediterranean with the spread of agriculture. E-M35, the most current group of E1b1b1 includes the individuals with no known sub-clade mutations (who are therefore said to be in the "ancestral state" referred to as E1b1b1 or E-M35) and now we have the E-L117."  
Men with surnames of Cohen are also found to have E-M96; E-L117 as haplogroups.  
Updated 7/22/15  
UPdated 7/23/15  18-20% of E-L117 make up Ashkenazi   and 8.6-30% of Sephardi population, 2nd largest to J1's Cohen gene.

E3b may have evolved in the Middle East before going into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. It’s found in many Arab populations and in areas around the Mediterranean. It’s in East and North Africa among the Berbers and in SE Europe. The Cohen Samaritans are found with E3b due to an admixture event.  The Lemba's of South Africa have 2.9% of E3b.  Cohens with J1 have 1.5% of E. 

I haplogroup is found in Scandinavia and Croatia with some in the Middle East, which most likely is the source. This was probably very common in the Viking populations.

T haplogroup;  I have just found 2 Jewish men with this haplogroup; T-M70,  with the same surname.  T1a1 clusters along an east-west axis from Iran to Spain. T1a2 is found both in northern Europe and southern Africa but is rarer in the eastern and western edges of T's distribution zone. To date, T1a3 has only been found in Kuwait. Something to do with phoenecian sea farers., could have been carried by phoencians, found in Lebanon.  

Jewish women fall under Mitochondrial Haplogroups.
Bryan Sykes had found 7 major mitochondrial lineages for modern Europeans but other now put the numbe at 10-12.  The added daughters include I, M and W.  The European haplogroups are now remapped as H, J, K, N1, T, U4, U5, V, X and W.  

K:  33 1/3 % of Jewish women are in the K (Katrina) haplogroup. It’s a sub-branch of U haplogroup which first appeared in the Holocene Epoch after the last glacial maximum when people went into Europe. It’s low among non-Jews except for Druze. There are 4 main sub-divisions of K amongst Jews, unique just to Jews. K is 6% European and 15K Years before the present, meaning I think 15,000-25,000  years ago and originated in N. Italy. (Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K is itself many thousands of years old. There are several branches that are found in Jewish populations. The one with the highest frequency is: 

 K1a1b1a. then kaa9 or K1a9, k2a2a.  This high percentage points to a genetic bottleneck occurring some 100 generations ago. Ashkenazi mtDNA K clusters into three subclades seldom found in non-Jews: K1a1b1a, K1a9, and K2a2a. Thus it is possible to detect three individual female ancestors, likely from a Hebrew/Levantine mtDNA pool, whose descendants lived in Europe.(upgraded 10/5/ searching Syrian Jewish mtdna.) Many Jewish people came into Syria from the 1492 Spanish Inquisition.  There were Jews in Syria before that group had entered as well.  origin=16,000 years ago in Near East
Rachel 's comment,   Haplogroup K is super
common.   One study found 32% of Ashkenazi Jews are descended from
three women in Haplogroup K.On my paternal side, 3 of my great great grandmothers are in
Haplogroup K and the 4th is Haplogroup W.
H:  21% of Jewish women are H (Helena) haplogroup. There are unique characteristics in H among Jews not found in non-Jews. However, this is found in half of European women’s ancestry besides being common in North Africa and the Middle East. It’s linked to population expansion about 20,000 -30,000 years ago and originated in the Caucasus or Europe. As Jewish men journeyed, they married non-Jewish women who converted, especially in the beginnings of their wanderings. H is 47% European and originated in Southern France. It is the largest haplogroup for women. added 6/15/11: I've found an Ashkenazi Jewish woman who is H7, and feels she is 100% Ashkenazi.  This may be the line mentioned above with the unique characteristics.  I'm not sure. 
HV: 40,000 years ago in the Near East  HVO  4.1% to Jewish group: H6a1a (H1b1-T16362C)
H: over 35,000 years ago in the Near East or southern Europe, 20.5% to Jewish group
H1b: 13,000 years ago in Europe
H3:10,000 years ago in western Europe
H2a1 is my mt haplogroup.  My grandmother came from Lumsheden, Sweden.  

N: 75,000 years ago in NE Africa;  N1b:  10% of Jewish women are N1b., one of the NE African lineages and thought to have originated in Africa 50,000- 60,000 years ago. It’s common in the Middle East and main source of various European female groups including B,F, H, J, R, T, and U.
N:  75,000 years ago in NE Africa

J:  7% of Jewish women are found to be J1, (Jasmine) which originated about 40,000-45,000 years ago in Near East or Caucasus/ central Asia and is associated with the spread of farming and herding in Europe during the Neolithic Period beginning 10,000 years ago. It’s common in the Middle East and among Jews. J2 is localized in the Mediterranean. J is 17% European originating in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago and is the 2nd largest haplogroup for women. Another J listed is 5% European originating in N. Spain about 17,000 years ago.

J, J1, J1a: 27,000 years ago in Near East; J1b: 23,000 years ago in Near East;  J2 originated about 45,000 years ago in central Asia and during the Neolithic Period were associated with the spread of farming and herding in Europe. It's common in the Middle East, Europe, the Caucasus, North Africa and among Jews. J1c7a.
  Found in northern Italy and Anatolia of Near East.  J2 is more localized in the Mediterranean. Update: J2 seems to be coming from Phonecians. J1 is about 7% of MT in Jews. Latest resource includes Canaanites and Phonecians as J2.  Both were assimilated into the Jewish Tribes during the entering of Canaan.  30% Jews have J2.
Update: 4/5/16:  J M267 is found in Jews of Cohens at 46.0%.  It's also common with the Arabs.  Syrian Arabs are found to have 33.6%, and Sunnis from Hama at 47.2%.  Ismailis from Damascus are found to have 58.5%.

 W (Wilma) is a small group that appears in the western Ural Mountains, the natural border between Europe and Asia and the eastern Baltic area, and is also found in India. This is what my Polish/Lithuania grandmother turned out to be. Not all W’s are Jewish, of course. It occurred first about 20,000-25,000 years ago in NE Europe or NW Asia. It is figured that 1.8 million carry W in Poland, and 2.7 million carry it in Russia. It's found all over the world.   Its highest frequency is in Ukraine, European Russia, Baltic countries and Finland (3 to 5% overall), as well as in northern Pakistan (15%), Punjab (9%) and Gujarat (12%). In Indian it is considerably more common among the upper castes and among Indo-European speakers.  Actually, 14 types are found in Ashkenazie Jews that were found by Behar, main researcher in dna of the Jewish people. My grandmother was W 16145A, 16223T, 16265G, 16519C. Jewish W made up 3.1% in a test in Poland and 2.7% in Russia and te Ukraine., contributed about 1.6% to Jewish group

It is thought that Ashkenazi Jews descend from four Jewish women today.  They are thought to be from pre-historic Europe.  ( Here we show that all four major founders, ~40% of Ashkenazi mtDNA variation, have ancestry in prehistoric Europe, rather than the Near East or Caucasus).  N is one of the lines.

Behar thinks there was a bottleneck in Ashkenazic populations. This means that a large population experienced a sudden extreme population decline followed by renewed growth. The result was that almost half of Europe’s Jews were descended from just four women who lived 1,000 years ago.

A new fact has emerged about dna. It’s called the AMOVA phenomenon. It means that the environment makes the initial changes in DNA and then heredity transmits them. There is a Middle East type AMOVA and a European type and these types cut across haplogroup distinctions. This phenomenon is still in discussion.

What I find interesting is that my grandfather, from Lithuania, was a Q1b with origins in the Altai Mountains and he met and married my grandmother in Council, Idaho, a mountain mining town. Her origins were in the Ural Mountains, and she came from Lithuania/Suwalki, Poland. They then moved to Portland, Oregon.

So now I believe that Abraham was in the J or J1haplogroup . Moses and of course his brother Aaron were J1. So was Ishmael, Abraham’s first son by Hagar, the Egyptian handmaid of Sarah who became the father of the Arabs.

In my opinion only, as for Sarah, she could have been a J or J2 . Hagar, the Egyptian could have been N, or H.
Update from Alfred Krupa 12/23/14, our Q1b1a cousin

I wonder all the time how we Jews are made up of several haplogroups other than J1, the Cohen gene from Aaron, Moses's brother.  After all, Abraham must have had J1, and of course Isaac and Jacob and all the rest of the males born to them.  They settled in Canaan.  Here's what could have happened besides the others that came along with the family in the Exodus.  Some haplogroups could have come from the 5 groups listed.  I'm guessing, but it's possible.

"The Israelite Kingdom arose in the 11th century BCE in an area between modern-day LebanonJordan and Saudi Arabia.  Current archaeological evidence indicates that the Israelite kingdom arose out of the earlier, Bronze Age Canaanite culture of that region, and displayed significant continuity with the Canaanites in culture, technology, language and ethnicity (Dever 2003, pp. 153-154). 

While the Canaanites were a Western Semitic people indigenous to the area, they appear to have consisted of a diverse ethno-cultural mix from the earliest times. It is from this diverse group that the evolution of the Israelites occurred.  Although little is known about these groups, they probably included some of the following populations:

  1. Amorites: Western Semites like the Canaanites.  They were probably the pastoral nomadic component of the Canaanite people. (I"ve ruled them out already.)  
  2. Hittites: A non-Semitic people from Anatolia and Northern Syria
  3. Hurrians (Horites): A non-Semitic people who inhabited parts of Syria and Mesopotamia.  Many kings of the early Canaanite city-states had Hurrian names.
  4. Amalekites: Nomads from southern Transjordan. Even inimical references to this group in the Hebrew Bible “tacitly” acknowledge that the Israelites and Amalekites shared a common ancestry.
  5. Philistines: Referred to in ancient texts as “Sea Peoples.”  They invaded and settled along the coasts of ancient Canaan.  Their culture appears to stem from that of Mycenae.
(Dever 2003, pp. 219-220)."  Reference:

Reference: Abraham’s Children, Race, Identity, and the DNA of the Chosen People by Jon Entine.
Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes
Peter Fischer-on W numbers
DNA & Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser
usion".  added 6/16/11
Update: 8/14/13 on J2 (update 1/4/14)
update: 3/19/15
Update: LEGACY, a Genetic History of the Jewish People by Harry Ostrer, 2012, Oxford  University Press Adadamia

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Was Roosevelt a Mentch?

Having been born September 1934, I grew up only knowing Franklin Delano Roosevelt as my president, much like Britoners know their king. He became president in 1932 and died in office just before WWII ended on April 12, 1945. The war was over August 14, 1945 which we call VJ Day. I cried uncontrollably and thought the world had come to an end when a runner came to our classroom in grade school to tell us the sad news that our president had just died. I thought of him more as our father than a remote president. He was so great.

I'm in the midst of reading "The Secret War Against the Jews-how western espionage betrayed the Jewish people" by John Loftus and Mark Aarons. I've just learned that though the president originally had sympathy for Jews in WWII, he had met with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia in order to get this king's support for Jews going to Palestine, and of course the king was vehemently opposed to that. So Roosevelt told Ibn Saud that he would do nothing to help the Jews against Arabs and would make no move hostile to the Arab people. He was being neutral in favor of Arabs. What was more important was Saudi Arabia's oil.

So when I have heard people say that oil has ruled in our politics, they are most likely right-it was true back then. It's a shame when our intelligence had to be wasted on spying and such instead of coming up with alternatives for oil like what is happening now. Wall Street, banks and investors were more important than 6 million lives who could have come up with many solutions to problems in our life instead of becoming wasted fuel in the furnaces.

One thing Roosevelt did on a good note was to become aware of Allan Dulles's treachery and spy on him. Evidently there were two brothers; Allen and John Foster, who were in cahoots. Allen Dulles was helping Germans throughout the war for his own financial reasons. He was in violation of the Trading with the Enemy Act and was giving aid and comfort to the enemy in time of war which was treason. Allen had been in partnership with Ibn Saud and Jack Philby since the 20's. One of his jobs was to influence American policymakers against Jews and Palestine as a homeland for them. At the time both Allen and John Foster were two of the most powerful men in the world. They had the Secretary of State Robert Lansing in their family. During this period anti-semitism was very popular in America, especially in the upper class.

A horrible web of deceit was woven against the Jews. Despite the odds and despite our enemies, Israel was born in May 1948. When you think of it all, it truly is a miracle. It really wasn't with Roosevelt's help, but with Truman, a man who stepped up to the plate and out of the shadows.

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

English Turncoats: Partners with Terrorist University

The London School of Economics (LSE) has teamed up with the Islamic University of Gaza (UG)which is a notorious terrorist stronghold.

IUG was created in 1978 by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin who was the founder of Hamas. It has been used as a place to convert Palestinians to its Islamist cause. Many of the Hamas leaders have been instructors there. No doubt it is continuing in this cause.

Yassin has stated that reconciliation with Jews is a crime. Israel must disappear from the map. Israel is Muslim land and is to be only for Muslims until Judgment Day. He has pursued armed struggle against Israel and has targeted civilians and blesses his suicide bombers.

In 2007 Hamas and Fatah, the two main terrorist Muslim groups in Gaza, were fighting each other in a power struggle. Fatah entered the university and found rocket-propelled grenade launchers, rockets, assault rifles and ammunition. They showed all this on TV.

Two years later Israel had finally had to fight against Hamas after enduring shelling for 8 solid years. They struck two IUG buildings which they knew to be used as centers for Hamas weapons such as Kassam rockets which were used to attack Israeli towns and villages near the Gaza border.

This is why this is a shock to find this English University teaming up with such a place in Gaza. They are claiming solidarity with a university that is actively involved in a campaign to destroy a democratic nation, that preaches hatred of Jews and celebrates their murder.

David Harris is a graduate of the London School of Economics. He writes for the American Jewish Committee, or AJC Media, which is a global Jewish advocacy group. He calls these University students "Useful Idiots". I don't even think they're useful. They're just plain idiots. What possible reason are they gaining to do such a thing? Their subject is economics. Is money so much more important that it causes these English students to not care who they are partnering with even if it means aiding and abetting a people to hate another group in the name of power? They have no conscience. It's deplorable. It's despicable.


Tuesday, January 12, 2010

DNA Testing Leads to Croatian Relative and Persecution

Through dna testing with familytreedna, I was able to be in contact with one of the leaders of our haplogroup, Alfred Krupa, who started the Ashina Royal Dynasty group. We are Q1b's, and he established through his research, that we stem from this dynasty which also lies in the Altai mountains, where our dna originated.

Afred lives in Croatia, which lies right across the waters from Italy. His grandfather was a Polish Jew who happened by a series of accidents, to escape the holocaust and wound up in Croatia where he stayed. His family has become Catholic. Now the government has been trying to steal his home, and he has been fighting the courts for several years. Evidently his home is in the palace.

Croatia is known to be very crooked, but they have no legal reasons to take his home. They have transpired with the bank to steal his property and have even used his Jewish roots as a reason.

Today is the 12th, and the police came and surrounded his home and arrested him. His father evidently almost killed himself in the agony of all this.

Here is what Alfred sent to me after my inquiry as to how things were.

translate the link via internet on line translator, write again all over the place ,about police brutality and state brutality, I was arrested as well as my father, who almost commited suicide with my grandfathers second world war trophy gunfull scale drama this morning!!!!the stoped because deputy police commisioner decided so, court did not want to stop!!!!!!Put photos all over the place!!
2010/1/12 Mladen Krupa <>

If you go to this site you will bring up the Croatian newspaper with all the pictures of this happening.

Yesterday I had found Croatian cookies on the shelf at Safeway here in Gresham, Oregon. I'm not buying any products knowing that they are as crooked and undemocratic as they are. I hope someone in Croatia learns this fact.

Afred is also on facebook. You can go to his site and read more about this.

PS 1/13/10 Update: An attempt at eviction of the Krupas from their home was made today on the 12th. The police showed up in quasi-military armor and tried to remove them by force. An arrest was made of one of the Krupa sons, but apparently it was called off temporarily before it escalated into violence. We are told that the police will make another attempt very soon. Check out this local newspaper report and view the pictures. Please make a comment on the news website and please continue to spread the word about this illegal seizure of family property. Thank you.;

Thursday, January 7, 2010

Refusing to Charge Palestinian with Terrorism

by Nadene Goldfoot

In Miami today Mansor Mohammed Assad, 43 of Toledo, Ohio, a man with Palestinian ancestry, was a passenger on a Northwest plane going to Detroit. Actually he was with three other Palestinians. This one yelled out, "I want to kill all the Jews". His punishment was only to be arrested on disorderly conduct and a few other charges, but not with terrorism.

Boy, what do you have to do to be arrested for terrorism? Build a fire under your seat? What if I were sitting next to him, a Jewish lady? I might have had a heart attack at his outburst.

The officers were told by his 27 year old son that he wasn't a terrorist. That was it. The son verified his innocence. Amazing. Mansor was said to have a short temper and an extensive criminal record. That's not enough to warrent charges for terrorism? Of course, it was someone else's fault. The son reported that someone had to have pushed his button. Oh my, that's why.
Someone pushed his button on the plane? You can blame others for your anger nowdays?

I am deeply appalled that this man wasn't charged with terrorism. It's terrorizing to do what he did, to threaten with death any Jew. The police even had to use a stun gun on this man to subdue him. He wasn't being compliant at all.

Mr. Northwest. I know you're owned by Delta, so both please pay attention. I'm not happy to have passengers in my plane who can threaten my life, even if they are not armed with a bomb. I believe that there has to be some punishment here for this action, whether he's bi-polar or short tempered or whatever. He was sane enough to travel with his co-horts. I'm going to avoid your flights from now on. These "peace loving" people have got to learn that this is unacceptable behavior and has consequences. By the way, his peers didn't stop him, did they.


Tuesday, January 5, 2010

2012 Getting Closer

Nadene Goldfoot       
I watched a program on the History Channel about the Mayan Calendar. There was certainly more to its creation and science than I had ever figured. The date December 21, 2012 is the last day on it and not because they just ran out of paper. There's a lot that they were considering that I have never known about. I'm still in awe over the astronomy that they understood. They were a primitive people and yet knew so much about the heavens. They had cycles of 400 years, and they had five calendars going at one time. It's very deep. I think it's all in the realm of a graduate degree.

Now we have one big scary thing happening in our world. We have Iran, run by meshugana religious Imans and one very crazy leader who want to put an end to Israel and they have atomic power. Whether they are ready to send atomic rockets to Israel at this moment is debatable, but it's getting very close. It could happen this year or as late as 2012. They're just crazy enough to do it. Israel had to step in once before and bomb a weapons depot in Iraq and were successful. This time, I think it would be much more difficult, and the USA would be against it, of course. So this is something in our reality that is not good.

We have Bin Laden who said, "Americans love life, that is their weakness." I also say that Jews love life and we say L'Chaim in our toasts all the time. But, Bin Laden continues to say, "We love death, that is our strength. " He said this on tape on the Arabic network Al-Jazeera recorded before 9/11 most likely. They look forward to all those 70 virgins they will have when deceased and that is more important to them than life here, it seems. They are the opposite of Jews. It's pretty amazing to me since we both believe in one G-d. For monotheists, the message certainly is not the same, even though they copied so much of our religion in certain ways. They just didn't get the same message. I think this is all why the Mayan Calendar and the Bible Code have something working for them. At this point in time, these things are possible.
Reading the Bible Code-computer printout
In Israel we have a mathematician, Dr. Eliyahu Rips, an expert in group theory, a field of mathematics that underlies quantum physics. He has discovered "The Bible Code". This is a code from our 5 books of Moses where he has put the Hebrew letters through the computer and in various ways has found codes that tell what has happened in the past. He has found the "Kennedy assassinations, the Oklahoma city bombing, the election of Bill Clinton, everything from WWII to Watergate, from the Holocaust to Hiroshima, from the Moon landing to the collision of a comet with Jupiter."

A few predictions were found; "the date the Gulf War would begin-and they found it weeks before it started. The date of the Jupiter collision was found months before the blast. " Michael Drosnin found the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin more than a year before the murder and personally warned the Prime Minister, but he didn't take it seriously, so it happened.

Michael Drosnin has written two books about the Bible Code;
The Bible Code and Bible Code II, The Countdown.
Relying on my memory, I believe he is also saying that something is going to happen in 2012. I have it in my mind that this is not a year I want to travel.

In the 2nd book, he wrote a quote from Einstein. "The distinction between past, present and future is only an illusion, however persistent. He wrote this on March 21, 1955 in a letter he wrote to the widow of a fellow physicist and friend, Michele Besso.

Stephen Hawking is my favorite physicist. Michael quotes him, also. He's just amazing. He stated that "time travel might be within our capabilities in his introduction to "The Physics of Star Trek". He also says this in his book "A Brief History of Time". He had said that any advanced form of space travel would require faster than light travel, which means going back in time. This makes me wonder that the UFO's that have reported are doing just that. That's another thing. UFO's were also a special on TV and many important people in our armed forces are now speaking up. You can be a doubter, but there is a lot of evidence that this is a real occurrence. My father couldn't convince me at age 13 of the future television that was coming. I thought he was out of his mind-a box that would have pictures on it like a movie theater? With my lack of experience, I couldn't conceive it. Look what our scientists are able to do and understand now. Nothing is impossible.

To make matters more serious, when I lived in Israel from 1980 to 1985, I came to know and listen to my friends who were orthodox Jews and I found out that they expect the Messiah soon, just as the Christians do. So this all points to something happening. These are awesome times that we are living in.

I think my New Year's resolution is to appreciate and enjoy every peaceful day. I hope others can do the same no matter where they are living.

P.S. 1/8/10 In the Jewish calendar, this is the year 5770. I believe the Messiah is to come in the year 6,000. That gives us another 230 years. It's close but we have breathing room to improve our ways.